1.1 What can be forecast?

Forecasting is required in many situations: deciding whether to build another power generation plant in the next five years requires forecasts of future demand; scheduling staff in a call centre next week requires forecasts of call volumes; stocking an inventory requires forecasts of stock requirements. Forecasts can be required several years in advance (for the case of capital investments), or only a few minutes beforehand (for telecommunication routing). Whatever the circumstances or time horizons involved, forecasting is an important aid to effective and efficient planning.

Some things are easier to forecast than others. The time of the sunrise tomorrow morning can be forecast precisely. On the other hand, tomorrow’s lotto numbers cannot be forecast with any accuracy. The predictability of an event or a quantity depends on several factors including:

  1. how well we understand the factors that contribute to it;
  2. how much data is available;
  3. how similar the future is to the past;
  4. whether the forecasts can affect the thing we are trying to forecast.

For example, short-term forecasts of residential electricity demand can be highly accurate because all four conditions are usually satisfied.

  1. We have a good idea of the contributing factors: electricity demand is driven largely by temperatures, with smaller effects for calendar variation such as holidays, and economic conditions.
  2. There is usually several years of data on electricity demand available, and many decades of data on weather conditions.
  3. For short-term forecasting (up to a few weeks), it is safe to assume that demand behaviour will be similar to what has been seen in the past.
  4. For most residential users, the price of electricity is not dependent on demand, and so the demand forecasts have little or no effect on consumer behaviour.

Provided we have the skills to develop a good model linking electricity demand and the key driver variables, the forecasts can be remarkably accurate.

On the other hand, when forecasting currency exchange rates, only one of the conditions is satisfied: there is plenty of available data. However, we have a limited understanding of the factors that affect exchange rates, the future may well be different to the past if there is a financial or political crisis in one of the countries, and forecasts of the exchange rate have a direct effect on the rates themselves. If there are well-publicised forecasts that the exchange rate will increase, then people will immediately adjust the price they are willing to pay and so the forecasts are self-fulfilling. In a sense, the exchange rates become their own forecasts. This is an example of the “efficient market hypothesis”. Consequently, forecasting whether the exchange rate will rise or fall tomorrow is about as predictable as forecasting whether a tossed coin will come down as a head or a tail. In both situations, you will be correct about 50% of the time, whatever you forecast. In situations like this, forecasters need to be aware of their own limitations, and not claim more than is possible.

Often in forecasting, a key step is knowing when something can be forecast accurately, and when forecasts will be no better than tossing a coin. Good forecasts capture the genuine patterns and relationships which exist in the historical data, but do not replicate past events that will not occur again. In this book, we will learn how to tell the difference between a random fluctuation in the past data that should be ignored, and a genuine pattern that should be modelled and extrapolated.

Many people wrongly assume that forecasts are not possible in a changing environment. Every environment is changing, and a good forecasting model captures the way in which things are changing. Forecasts rarely assume that the environment is unchanging. What is normally assumed is that the way in which the environment is changing will continue into the future. That is, a highly volatile environment will continue to be highly volatile; a business with fluctuating sales will continue to have fluctuating sales; and an economy that has gone through booms and busts will continue to go through booms and busts. A forecasting model is intended to capture the way things move, not just where things are. As Abraham Lincoln said, “If we could first know where we are and whither we are tending, we could better judge what to do and how to do it”.

Forecasting situations vary widely in their time horizons, factors determining actual outcomes, types of data patterns, and many other aspects. Forecasting methods can be simple, such as using the most recent observation as a forecast (which is called the naïve method), or highly complex, such as neural nets and econometric systems of simultaneous equations. Sometimes, there will be no data available at all. For example, we may wish to forecast the sales of a new product in its first year, but there are obviously no data to work with. In situations like this, we use judgmental forecasting, discussed in Chapter 6. The choice of method depends on what data are available and the predictability of the quantity to be forecast.